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What Does Your User Agent Say About You?

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A user agent is a computer program representing a person, for example, a browser in a Web context.

Besides a browser, a user agent could be a bot scraping webpages, a download manager, or another app accessing the Web. Along with each request they make to the server, browsers include a self-identifying User-Agent HTTP header called a user agent (UA) string. This string often identifies the browser, its version number, and its host operating system.

Spam bots, download managers, and some browsers often send a fake UA string to announce themselves as a different client. This is known as user agent spoofing.

The user agent string can be accessed with JavaScript on the client side using the navigator.userAgent property.

A typical user agent string looks like this: "Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Ubuntu; Linux x86_64; rv:35.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/35.0".

(Source: Mozilla.org)

User Agent String

Browser Data

Net Core User Agent

author
Brent Mccoy
• Friday, 30 July, 2021
• 36 min read

HttpClient client = new HttpClient(); HttpRequestMessage request = new HttpRequestMessage(HttpMethod. Get, http://msdn.microsoft.com/ “); request. Headers. Date = Daytime. Now. Subtract(new Time Span(10,0, 0)); request. Headers. UserAgent. ParseAdd(“New User Agent Value”); HttpResponseMessage response = await client. SendAsync(request); string resulted = response. StatusCode. ToString(); The following table lists the HTTP headers that are not stored in the Headers' collection but are either set by the system or set by properties or methods.

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(Source: github.com)

Contents

But this property is not available for Metro Style App in Win8 Consumer Preview. HttpWebRequest is a complete implementation of a HTTP request using raw TCP in .NET.

Waive Miasma 9,78544 gold badges4949 silver badges6464 bronze badges It's an apparently simple thing but a bit complicated cause of different types of authentication systems in ASP.

Ahmad Ahmad2,14633 gold badges2020 silver badges2727 bronze badges I have to say I was quite surprised that HttpContext is null inside the constructor.

For anyone finding this question looking for an answer to the generic “How to get current user ?” But you can only do this inside action methods (I assume because controllers don't only run with HttpContexts and for performance reasons).

The most important thing here is if you're doing unit tests you don't need to send in an HttpContext, but only need to mock something that represents Principal which can just be ClaimsPrincipal. I assume MS decided that ClaimsPrincipal was just a specialized 'collection' that didn't warrant an interface.

agent
(Source: support.netpeaksoftware.com)

In addition to existing answers I'd like to add that you can also have a class instance available app-wide which holds user -related data like User ID etc. It may be useful for refactoring e.g. you don't want to fetch User ID in every controller action and declare an extra User ID parameter in every method related to Service Layer.

You just extend your class which you derive from Context by adding Used property (or implement a custom Session class which has this property). At filter level you can fetch your class instance and set Used value.

This answer is absolutely correct and I recommend using this approach. NET can NOT populate service principle properly.

It's obvious that to get username MVC framework should take it from somewhere. Network is using Open ID Connect middleware.

In this scenario, the web application directs the user ’s browser to sign them in to Azure AD. To make it work in the code for your application, you'll need to provide the authority to which you web app delegates sign-in.

(Source: my-master.net.ua)

I believe (this is my educated guess) that under the hood of this process the wizard adjusts “parent” web config of this web app by adding the same settings that I show in following paragraphs. Basically, the issue why this approach does NOT work in ASP.

Network is because “parent” machine config is ignored by config. So, to make it works you need to set up this manually in your app.

Step 2: In the app settings.Jason file: replace the Client ID value with the Application ID from the application you registered in Application Registration portal on Step 1. Replace the Tenanted value with common. Step 3: Open the Startup.cs file and in the ConfigureServices method, after the line containing. AddAzureAD insert the following code, which enables your application to sign in users with the Azure AD v2.0 endpoint, that is both Work and School and Microsoft Personal accounts.

Summary : I've showed one more possible issue that could LEED to an error that topic starter is explained. The reason of this issue is missing configurations for Azure AD (Open ID middleware).

Most of the answers show how to best handle HttpContext from the documentation, which is also what I went with. I did want to mention that you'll want to check you project settings when debugging, the default is Enable Anonymous Authentication = true.

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(Source: wpfixall.com)

Making statements based on opinion; back them up with references or personal experience. Network apps access HttpContext through the IHttpContextAccessor interface and its default implementation HttpContextAccessor.

The following example retrieves the current username in an intranet app using Windows Authentication: Reading or writing properties of the HttpContext outside of processing a request can result in a NullReferenceException.

If your app generates sporadic NullReferenceException errors, review parts of the code that start background processing or that continue processing after a request completes. Look for mistakes, such as defining a controller method as asynchronous void.

To safely perform background work with HttpContext data: To avoid unsafe code, never pass the HttpContext into a method that performs background work.

For each app session, Blazor starts a circuit with its own DI container scope. That means that scoped services are unique per Blazor session.

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We don't recommend apps on the same server share state using singleton services unless extreme care is taken, as this can introduce security vulnerabilities, such as leaking user state across circuits. You can use stateful singleton services in Blazor apps if they are specifically designed for it.

Additionally, again for security reasons, you must not use IHttpContextAccessor within Blazor apps. Populate that data from the Razor page using the HttpContext available at that time.

Define a parameter in the root component to hold the data being passed to the app. An IHttpClientFactory can be registered and used to configure and create HttpClient instances in an app.

Provides a central location for naming and configuring logical HttpClient instances. Codifies the concept of outgoing middleware via delegating handlers in HttpClient.

Provides extensions for Polly-based middleware to take advantage of delegating handlers in HttpClient. Manages the pooling and lifetime of underlying HttpClientMessageHandler instances.

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(Source: qualysguard.qg2.apps.qualys.com)

Adds a configurable logging experience (via Blogger) for all requests sent through clients created by the factory. The sample code in this topic version uses System. Text. Json to deserialize JSON content returned to HTTP responses.

Using IHttpClientFactory like in the preceding example is a good way to refactor an existing app. In places where HttpClient instances are created in an existing app, replace those occurrences with calls to CreateClient.

The code can pass just the path, since the base address configured for the client is used. Provide the same capabilities as named clients without the need to use strings as keys.

Creates an instance of StringContent to package the serialized JSON for sending in the HTTP request's body. Calls Apostasy to send the JSON content to the specified URL.

Calls EnsureSuccessStatusCode to throw an exception if the response status code does not indicate success. In the preceding code, the DeleteItemAsync method calls DeleteAsync.

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Because HTTP DELETE requests typically contain nobody, the DeleteAsync method doesn't provide an overload that accepts an instance of HttpContent. HttpClient has the concept of delegating handlers that can be linked together for outgoing HTTP requests.

Simplifies defining the handlers to apply for each named client. Supports registration and chaining of multiple handlers to build an outgoing request middleware pipeline.

It allows developers to express policies such as Retry, Circuit Breaker, Timeout, Bulkhead Isolation, and Fallback in a fluent and thread-safe manner. Extension methods are provided to enable the use of Polly policies with configured HttpClient instances.

The Polly extensions support adding Polly-based handlers to clients. Faults typically occur when external HTTP calls are transient.

AddTransientHttpErrorPolicy provides access to a Policyholder object configured to handle errors representing a possible transient fault: Failed requests are retried up to three times with a delay of 600 ms between attempts.

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(Source: gerardnico.com)

In the preceding code, if the outgoing request is an HTTP GET, a 10-second timeout is applied. The second AddTransientHttpErrorPolicy call adds a circuit breaker policy.

Further external requests are blocked for 30 seconds if 5 failed attempts to occur sequentially. An approach to managing regularly used policies is to define them once and register them with a PolicyRegistry.

A new HttpClient instance is returned each time CreateClient is called on the IHttpClientFactory. IHttpClientFactory pools the HttpMessageHandler instances created by the factory to reduce resource consumption.

HttpClient instances can generally be treated as .NET objects not requiring disposal. IHttpClientFactory tracks and disposes resources used by HttpClient instances.

Keeping a single HttpClient instance alive for a long duration is a common pattern used before the inception of IHttpClientFactory. Resource exhaustion problems by pooling HttpMessageHandler instances.

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(Source: github.com)

Stale DNS problems by cycling HttpMessageHandler instances at regular intervals. There are alternative ways to solve the preceding problems using a long-lived SocketsHttpHandler instance.

The SocketsHttpHandler cycles connections according to PooledConnectionLifetime to avoid stale DNS problems. The pooled HttpMessageHandler instances results in CookieContainer objects being shared.

Clients created via IHttpClientFactory record log messages for all requests. A client named MyNamedClient, for example, logs messages with a category of “System.

Messages suffixed with LogicalHandler occur outside the request handler pipeline. Logging also occurs inside the request handler pipeline.

Main creates a scope to execute the service's Get Page method and write the first 500 characters of the webpage content to the console. Provides a central location for naming and configuring logical HttpClient instances.

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(Source: www.netfort.com)

Manages the pooling and lifetime of underlying HttpClientMessageHandler instances to avoid common DNS problems that occur when manually managing HttpClient lifetimes. Adds a configurable logging experience (via Blogger) for all requests sent through clients created by the factory.

Using IHttpClientFactory in this fashion is a good way to refactor an existing app. In places where HttpClient instances are currently created, replace those occurrences with a call to CreateClient.

If an app requires many distinct uses of HttpClient, each with a different configuration, an option is to use named clients. In the preceding code, AddHttpClient is called, providing the name GitHub.

It can pass just the path, since the base address configured for the client is used. Provide the same capabilities as named clients without the need to use strings as keys.

In the preceding code, the configuration is moved into the typed client. The GetAspNetDocsIssues method encapsulates the code needed to query for and parse out the latest open issues from a GitHub repository.

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(Source: blogs.msdn.microsoft.com)

Rather than exposing it as a property, public methods can be provided which call the HttpClient instance internally. All access to make external calls goes through the Genres method.

The defined interface can be consumed where necessary, with the implementation provided by DI and Refit: HttpClient already has the concept of delegating handlers that can be linked together for outgoing HTTP requests.

The IHttpClientFactory makes it easy to define the handlers to apply for each named client. It supports registration and chaining of multiple handlers to build an outgoing request middleware pipeline.

If the header is missing, it can avoid the HTTP call and return a suitable response. Create a custom Syncopal storage object to pass the data.

It allows developers to express policies such as Retry, Circuit Breaker, Timeout, Bulkhead Isolation, and Fallback in a fluent and thread-safe manner. Extension methods are provided to enable the use of Polly policies with configured HttpClient instances.

(Source: www.youtube.com)

Most common faults occur when external HTTP calls are transient. A convenient extension method called AddTransientHttpErrorPolicy is included which allows a policy to be defined to handle transient errors.

The extension provides access to a Policyholder object configured to handle errors representing a possible transient fault: Failed requests are retried up to three times with a delay of 600 ms between attempts.

Additional extension methods exist which can be used to add Polly-based handlers. In the preceding code, if the outgoing request is an HTTP GET, a 10-second timeout is applied.

It's common to nest Polly policies to provide enhanced functionality: The second call to AddTransientHttpErrorPolicy adds a circuit breaker policy.

Further external requests are blocked for 30 seconds if five failed attempts to occur sequentially. An approach to managing regularly used policies is to define them once and register them with a PolicyRegistry.

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(Source: www.nexmo.com)

An extension method is provided which allows a handler to be added using a policy from the registry: In the preceding code, two policies are registered when the PolicyRegistry is added to the ServiceCollection.

A new HttpClient instance is returned each time CreateClient is called on the IHttpClientFactory. IHttpClientFactory pools the HttpMessageHandler instances created by the factory to reduce resource consumption.

To override it, call SetHandlerLifetime on the IHttpClientBuilder that is returned when creating the client: IHttpClientFactory tracks and disposes resources used by HttpClient instances.

The HttpClient instances can generally be treated as .NET objects not requiring disposal. Keeping a single HttpClient instance alive for a long duration is a common pattern used before the inception of IHttpClientFactory.

Resource exhaustion problems by pooling HttpMessageHandler instances. Stale DNS problems by cycling HttpMessageHandler instances at regular intervals.

(Source: quantrimang.com)

There are alternative ways to solve the preceding problems using a long-lived SocketsHttpHandler instance. The SocketsHttpHandler cycles connections according to PooledConnectionLifetime to avoid stale DNS problems.

The pooled HttpMessageHandler instances results in CookieContainer objects being shared. Unanticipated CookieContainer object sharing often results in incorrect code.

Clients created via IHttpClientFactory record log messages for all requests. A client named MyNamedClient, for example, logs messages with a category of System.

Messages suffixed with LogicalHandler occur outside the request handler pipeline. Logging also occurs inside the request handler pipeline.

Main creates a scope to execute the service's Get Page method and write the first 500 characters of the webpage content to the console. Provides a central location for naming and configuring logical HttpClient instances.

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(Source: www.netrounds.com)

Manages the pooling and lifetime of underlying HttpClientMessageHandler instances to avoid common DNS problems that occur when manually managing HttpClient lifetimes. Adds a configurable logging experience (via Blogger) for all requests sent through clients created by the factory.

Using IHttpClientFactory in this fashion is a good way to refactor an existing app. In places where HttpClient instances are currently created, replace those occurrences with a call to CreateClient.

If an app requires many distinct uses of HttpClient, each with a different configuration, an option is to use named clients. In the preceding code, AddHttpClient is called, providing the name GitHub.

It can pass just the path, since the base address configured for the client is used. Provide the same capabilities as named clients without the need to use strings as keys.

The GetAspNetDocsIssues method encapsulates the code needed to query for and parse out the latest open issues from a GitHub repository. Rather than exposing it as a property, public methods can be provided which call the HttpClient instance internally.

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(Source: remotedesktopmanager.com)

All access to make external calls goes through the Genres method. An implementation of the interface is generated dynamically by the Disservice, using HttpClient to make the external HTTP calls.

HttpClient already has the concept of delegating handlers that can be linked together for outgoing HTTP requests. The IHttpClientFactory makes it easy to define the handlers to apply for each named client.

It supports registration and chaining of multiple handlers to build an outgoing request middleware pipeline. The pattern provides a mechanism to manage cross-cutting concerns around HTTP requests, including caching, error handling, serialization, and logging.

Override the SendAsync method to execute code before passing the request to the next handler in the pipeline: If the header is missing, it can avoid the HTTP call and return a suitable response.

The handler must be registered in DI as a transient service, never scoped. Create a custom Syncopal storage object to pass the data.

(Source: www.atsconvers.ru)

It allows developers to express policies such as Retry, Circuit Breaker, Timeout, Bulkhead Isolation, and Fallback in a fluent and thread-safe manner. Extension methods are provided to enable the use of Polly policies with configured HttpClient instances.

Most common faults occur when external HTTP calls are transient. A convenient extension method called AddTransientHttpErrorPolicy is included which allows a policy to be defined to handle transient errors.

The extension provides access to a Policyholder object configured to handle errors representing a possible transient fault: Failed requests are retried up to three times with a delay of 600 ms between attempts.

The second call to AddTransientHttpErrorPolicy adds a circuit breaker policy. Further external requests are blocked for 30 seconds if five failed attempts to occur sequentially.

In the preceding code, two policies are registered when the PolicyRegistry is added to the ServiceCollection. A new HttpClient instance is returned each time CreateClient is called on the IHttpClientFactory.

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(Source: www.netrounds.com)

The HttpClient instances can generally be treated as .NET objects not requiring disposal. Keeping a single HttpClient instance alive for a long duration is a common pattern used before the inception of IHttpClientFactory.

Resource exhaustion problems by pooling HttpMessageHandler instances. Stale DNS problems by cycling HttpMessageHandler instances at regular intervals.

There are alternative ways to solve the preceding problems using a long-lived SocketsHttpHandler instance. The SocketsHttpHandler cycles connections according to PooledConnectionLifetime to avoid stale DNS problems.

The pooled HttpMessageHandler instances results in CookieContainer objects being shared. Unanticipated CookieContainer object sharing often results in incorrect code.

Clients created via IHttpClientFactory record log messages for all requests. A client named MyNamedClient, for example, logs messages with a category of System.

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(Source: microsoft-agent-core-components.en.softonic.com)

Messages suffixed with LogicalHandler occur outside the request handler pipeline. This may include changes to request headers, for example, or to the response status code.

The delegate is used to create and configure the primary HttpMessageHandler used by that client: Main creates a scope to execute the service's Get Page method and write the first 500 characters of the webpage content to the console.

A common way to create HttpClient s in Web API and MVC projects for .NET is using a HttpClientFactory. This can be added to the Service Collection in Startup.cs and be Dependency Injected in each controller.

This helps you get an overview of the quality of your applications and to spot trends in your releases. We notify you when errors start happening using Slack, Microsoft Teams, mail or other forms of communication to help you react to errors before your users do.

We help you fix bugs quickly by combining error diagnostic information with innovative quick fixes and answers from Stack Overflow and social media. Middleware is software that's assembled into an app pipeline to handle requests and responses.

Request delegates are configured using Run, Map, and Use extension methods. An individual request delegate can be specified in-line as an anonymous method (called in-line middleware), or it can be defined in a reusable class.

This case doesn't include an actual request pipeline. Instead, a single anonymous function is called in response to every HTTP request.

You can typically perform actions both before and after the next delegate, as the following example demonstrates: For example, Static File Middleware can act as a terminal middleware by processing a request for a static file and short-circuiting the rest of the pipeline.

Changes to HttpResponse after the response has started throw an exception. For example, writing an HTML footer to a CSS file.

Started is a useful hint to indicate if headers have been sent or the body has been written to. The following diagram shows the complete request processing pipeline for ASP.

Middleware that is not added when creating a new web app with individual users accounts is commented out. For example: Users, Reauthentication, and Preauthorization must go in the order shown.

Users currently must go before UseResponseCaching due to this bug. With the preceding code, CPU could be saved by caching the compressed response, but you might end up caching multiple representations of a resource using different compression algorithms such as GZIP or broth.

The following Startup. Configure method adds middleware components for common app scenarios: Exception/error handling When the app runs in the Development environment: Developer Exception Page Middleware (UseDeveloperExceptionPage) reports app runtime errors.

When the app runs in the Production environment: Exception Handler Middleware (UseExceptionHandler) catches exceptions thrown in the following middlewares. HTTP Strict Transport Security Protocol (Hits) Middleware (Usenets) adds the Strict-Transport-Security header.

Cookie Policy Middleware (UseCookiePolicy) conforms the app to the EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) regulations. Static File Middleware is called early in the pipeline so that it can handle requests and short-circuit without going through the remaining components.

The Static File Middleware provides no authorization checks. Although Authentication Middleware authenticates requests, authorization (and rejection) occurs only after MVC selects a specific Razor Page or MVC controller and action.

Static files aren't compressed with this middleware order. To allow all other middlewares to respond to matching requests first.

For more details on Spas, see the guides for the React and Angular project templates. Map extensions are used as a convention for branching the pipeline.

The following table shows the requests and responses from http://localhost:1234 using the previous code. Meighen branches the request pipeline based on the result of the given predicate.

The following table shows the requests and responses from http://localhost:1234 using the previous code: RequestResponselocalhost:1234Hello from non-Map delegate.localhost:1234/?branch=master Branch used = master When also branches the request pipeline based on the result of the given predicate.

If the request includes a query string variable branch, its value is logged before the main pipeline is rejoined. The Order column provides notes on middleware placement in the request processing pipeline and under what conditions the middleware may terminate request processing.

HTTP Method Override Allows an incoming POST request to override the method. Before components that consume the updated method. HTTPS Redirection Redirect all HTTP requests to HTTPS. Before components that consume the URL. Security enhancement middleware that adds a special response header. Before responses are sent and after components that modify requests.

Examples: Forwarded Headers, URL Rewriting. SPA Handles all requests from this point in the middleware chain by returning the default page for the Single Page Application (SPA)Late in the chain, so that other middleware for serving static files, MVC actions, etc., takes precedence.

Middleware is software that's assembled into an app pipeline to handle requests and responses. Request delegates are configured using Run, Map, and Use extension methods.

An individual request delegate can be specified in-line as an anonymous method (called in-line middleware), or it can be defined in a reusable class. This case doesn't include an actual request pipeline.

For example, Static File Middleware can act as a terminal middleware by processing a request for a static file and short-circuiting the rest of the pipeline. Changes to HttpResponse after the response has started throw an exception.

For example, changes such as setting headers and a status code throw an exception. For example, writing an HTML footer to a CSS file.

Started is a useful hint to indicate if headers have been sent or the body has been written to. The order is critical for security, performance, and functionality.

The following Startup. Configure method adds security related middleware components in the recommended order: Middleware that is not added when creating a new web app with individual users accounts is commented out.

Exception/error handling When the app runs in the Development environment: Developer Exception Page Middleware (UseDeveloperExceptionPage) reports app runtime errors. When the app runs in the Production environment: Exception Handler Middleware (UseExceptionHandler) catches exceptions thrown in the following middlewares.

HTTP Strict Transport Security Protocol (Hits) Middleware (Usenets) adds the Strict-Transport-Security header. Cookie Policy Middleware (UseCookiePolicy) conforms the app to the EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) regulations.

Static File Middleware is called early in the pipeline so that it can handle requests and short-circuit without going through the remaining components. The Static File Middleware provides no authorization checks.

Although Authentication Middleware authenticates requests, authorization (and rejection) occurs only after MVC selects a specific Razor Page or MVC controller and action. Static files aren't compressed with this middleware order.

Configure the HTTP pipeline using Use, Run, and Map. Map extensions are used as a convention for branching the pipeline.

The following table shows the requests and responses from http://localhost:1234 using the previous code. Meighen branches the request pipeline based on the result of the given predicate.

The Order column provides notes on middleware placement in the request processing pipeline and under what conditions the middleware may terminate request processing. Examples: Authentication, Session, MVC (Template).

HTTP Method Override Allows an incoming POST request to override the method. Before components that consume the updated method. HTTPS Redirection Redirect all HTTP requests to HTTPS. Before components that consume the URL. Security enhancement middleware that adds a special response header. Before responses are sent and after components that modify requests.

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Sources
1 passivetech.com - https://passivetech.com/2020/04/28/how-to-change-your-browsers-user-agent-and-trick-websites/
2 www.howtogeek.com - https://www.howtogeek.com/113439/how-to-change-your-browsers-user-agent-without-installing-any-extensions/
3 www.ubergizmo.com - https://www.ubergizmo.com/how-to/change-browser-user-agent/
4 www.ctrl.blog - https://www.ctrl.blog/entry/brave-user-agent-detection.html
5 helpdeskgeek.com - https://helpdeskgeek.com/how-to/how-to-change-your-browsers-user-agent-without-installing-an-extension/
6 github.com - https://github.com/brave/brave-browser/issues/1052
7 www.reddit.com - https://www.reddit.com/r/brave_browser/comments/kjbg1x/useragent_issue/
8 www.maketecheasier.com - https://www.maketecheasier.com/change-user-agents-chrome-firefox-edge/
9 stackoverflow.com - https://stackoverflow.com/questions/36523448/how-do-i-tell-if-a-user-is-using-brave-as-their-browser