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What Does Your User Agent Say About You?

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A user agent is a computer program representing a person, for example, a browser in a Web context.

Besides a browser, a user agent could be a bot scraping webpages, a download manager, or another app accessing the Web. Along with each request they make to the server, browsers include a self-identifying User-Agent HTTP header called a user agent (UA) string. This string often identifies the browser, its version number, and its host operating system.

Spam bots, download managers, and some browsers often send a fake UA string to announce themselves as a different client. This is known as user agent spoofing.

The user agent string can be accessed with JavaScript on the client side using the navigator.userAgent property.

A typical user agent string looks like this: "Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Ubuntu; Linux x86_64; rv:35.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/35.0".

(Source: Mozilla.org)

User Agent String

Browser Data

User Agent Attacks

author
David Lawrence
• Friday, 30 July, 2021
• 12 min read

And all must, at some point, take the string that was received from the request or the browser and parse it, in order to be able to customize the web page as required. In September 2014, a vulnerability was discovered in bash, a popular shell (command-line interface) in Unix systems.

attacks agent user overlooked
(Source: www.perimeterx.com)

Contents

The vulnerability, when exploited, allowed an attacker to take over the affected machine and execute arbitrary commands. The bad guys -- the black-hat community -- immediately started scanning the Internet for vulnerable systems, subsequently attacking them and taking control of them.

The good guys -- the security industry -- quickly took a deeper look at the affected modules and found a few more vulnerabilities in the same area. Following the discovery of Shell shock, security professionals have been racing to update all the vulnerable software they could lay their hands on.

There are numerous conceivable explanations behind that, the most widely recognized being: cybersecurity training Programmed updates are killed. Cyber security trainingSubsequently, despite the fact that a fix has been made and sent, there stay numerous unpatched frameworks on the Internet.

This sort of assault, named Remote Code Execution (or Race for short) is the sacred vessel for assailants, since it gives the aggressor a high level of control over the influenced framework. Inside hours of the production of the presence of the defenselessness, both the dark cap group and the security business assembled.

Using this data, a website can assess the capabilities of your computer, optimizing a page’s performance and display. This is a simple request to visit the WEB home page, at first glance seems to be no problem.

(Source: betanews.com)

This technique is commonly used in a variety of scanners, for example, the Selma with -p parameters will try the HTTP request header field for injection. This attack belongs to the SQL blind, the general SQL injection will query the results back to the WEB page, and the blind attacker can not see the output of the query, so they will use another way to determine the injection.

In order to verify the existence of injection vulnerabilities, only need to execute the following command: Although an attacker’s INSERT INTO query will only write data to the database, it will still allow them to extract sensitive information and gain access.

If our application is more complex, such as a blog comment system, then we can use this vulnerability to the database of some information transferred to a comment, so that we can visit the page directly to the database information, and this method It is usually used when a large amount of data needs to be extracted. A few weeks back, a website we work with saw a dramatic drop in Google organic traffic.

While there have been algorithm updates, the timing of our client’s traffic loss did not align well with these. Our first conclusion was that at some point in time the robots.txt file had accidentally been switched to disallow the whole site, but since then had been reverted.

This is pretty commonplace as this occurs when staging websites’ robots.txt file that contains the Disallow: / directive is pushed to production. A few days later we started to see rankings and traffic slowly recover, but when we attempted to fetch LIVE URLs via GSC we saw that Google failed to fetch, and gave the error “Failed: Crawl anomaly”.

user header referer injection attacks command agent
(Source: www.youtube.com)

We noticed that the user agent for both the URL inspector and the Coverage Report was “Google bot smartphone” which makes sense since Google has moved to mobile-first indexing. That struck us as odd as we have used this tool plenty of times when doing SEO audits and rarely ever received this “Page cannot be reached” message.

The prompt to request users to update their browser was a harmless update by a development team, aimed to ensure that users would have the best experience of their site by using a browser that fully supports all of its features. Sergeant : sometimes abbreviated as UA, the user agent is a browser text string that is given to each website you visit; containing information such as the browser version, compatibility, operating system, and any modifying plugins.

Using this data, a website can assess the capabilities of your computer, optimizing a page’s performance and display. This is a simple request to visit the WEB home page, at first glance seems to be no problem.

This technique is commonly used in a variety of scanners, for example, the Selma with -p parameters will try the HTTP request header field for injection. This attack belongs to the SQL blind, the general SQL injection will query the results back to the WEB page, and the blind attacker can not see the output of the query, so they will use another way to determine the injection.

In order to verify the existence of injection vulnerabilities, only need to execute the following command: Although an attacker’s INSERT INTO query will only write data to the database, it will still allow them to extract sensitive information and gain access.

logjam attack vulnerable agent user
(Source: scottontechnology.com)

Gibsonanath: I need to create rules to block specific Sergeant from accessing my zone. You can do so by going to Dashboard > Firewall > Tools > Sergeant Blocking.

You may prefer to search for the bot’s AS Number (assuming it’s a “good bot”) and add that in Dashboard > Firewall > Tools > IP Access Rules. As a new VoIP startup, you may find your SIP server under attack one day.

Instead, it’s important to understand the security aspects of VoIP so you can properly defend your servers from ruthless hackers and script kiddies. This blog post discusses one of the most popular SIP attacks and how to arm yourself against it.

It scans IP ranges for SIP servers such as soft switches or PBX, which communicate via the 5060 port. The valid accounts are later used for fraudulent purposes, such as making free international calls.

Friendly-scanner can probe your network once every few hours or go into full-blown DoS mode, sending more than 80 SIP REGISTER requests per second. If how much you pay is based on how much traffic you generate, you’ll be hit with a hefty bill.

(Source: www.wgbh.org)

Signs of a SIP server attack include problems registering/connecting your phones, extremely slow network connections, and continual heavy use of bandwidth (which can be seen when reviewing your firewall logs). Because SIP clients often connect dynamically via cable modems and other IP-changing networks, locking down IP access usually isn’t feasible.

Some tools use automated scripts to stop attacks by tricking the scanner into thinking it’s made a successful register attempt. SIP attacks can be extremely frustrating and costly, but you don’t have to lay down and let hackers control your VoIP network.

By educating yourself on the security aspects of VoIP and taking the actions described above, you can successfully defend your network. XML Firewall Wei AssertionsAttack Attack NameAttack Name in Export LogsDescriptionSeverityAttack Category 211DOCTYPE Element XML_WSI1007The SOAP message contains a Type element in the request.

WSI1318: Grandchildren of SOAP:Body Should Not Have the SOAP:EncodingStyle Attribute is set to Yes on the WEBSITES > XML Protection > Ski Basic Profile Assertions section. AlertXML Violations220Envelope Namespace is 1998XML_WSI1033The message with an envelope contains the namespace declaration XML:XML=http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace. WSI1309: SOAP:Envelope Should Not Have Direct Children After the SOAP:Body Element is set to Yes on the WEBSITES >XML Protection > Ski Basic Profile Assertions section. AlertXML Violations225Message Contains Undefined “Soaping:Fault” Element(s)XML_WSI1107A fault detected in the message which is not defined in WSDL:binding.

WSI1107: Fault Response Should be Defined in WSDL:Binding is set to Yes on the WEBSITES >XML Protection > Ski Basic Profile Assertions section. AlertXML Violations218SOAP 1.1 Dot Notation is Used By the “SOAP:Fault” Element XML_WSI1031The message contains a fault code element with dot (.) WSI1201: SOAP:Envelope Should Have v1.1 Namespace is set to Yes on the WEBSITES > Protection > Ski Basic Profile Assertions section. AlertXML Violations213Message Does Not Include All Headers XML_WSI1009Message does not contain all the “soap bind:headers” specified in the WSDL file.

xss attack agent stored hacking bwapp tamil tutorials ponirevo
(Source: ponirevo.com)

WSI1301: Attribute “Misunderstand” Value Should be Either “1” or “0” is set to Yes on the WEBSITES > Protection > Ski Basic Profile Assertions section. AlertXML Violations216SOAP:Fault Not Generated for Bad Envelope Namespace XML_WSI1012A soap:Fault not generated for a document element named “Envelope” where the namespace name is not “http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/”. WSI1012: SOAP:Fault Should be Generated for Bad Envelope Namespace is set to Yes on the WEBSITES > Protection > Ski Basic Profile Assertions section. AlertXML Violations223Non POST Request Does Not Contain 405 HTTP Status Code XML_WSI1103A SOAP message sent as part of a non-POST method request received an HTTP response with status code other than 405.

WSI1103: Response to a Non POST Request Should Contain 405 HTTP Status Code is set to Yes on the WEBSITES > XML Protection > Ski Basic Profile Assertions section. AlertXML Violations224Non XML Request Does Not Contain 415 HTTP Status Code XML_WSI1104A SOAP message sent as part of non-XML request received an HTTP response with status code other than 415. WSI1010: One-Way Response Should Not Contain a SOAP:Envelope is set to Yes on the WEBSITES > Protection > Ski Basic Profile Assertions section. AlertXML Violations235Part Accessory Have “CSI: nil” Attribute XML_WSI1211Message with rpc-literal binding contains CSI:nil attribute with value of “1” or ‘true’ on the part accessory.

WSI1211: Part Accessory Should Not Have “CSI: nil” Attribute with Value “1” or “True” is set to Yes on the WEBSITES > Protection > Ski Basic Profile Assertions section. AlertXML Violations222Processed Response Status is Neither 200 nor 202XML_WSI1101Response message without embedded SOAP message. WSI1101: Processed Response Should Use Either 200 or 202 HTTP Status Code is set to Yes on the WEBSITES > Protection > Ski Basic Profile Assertions section. AlertXML Violations215Request Does Not Match the WSDL:Definition XML_WSI1011Content of request message does not conform to the WSDL file definition.

WSI1011: Request Content Should Match WSDL:Definition is set to Yes on the WEBSITES > Protection > Ski Basic Profile Assertions section. AlertXML Violations208Request Message is Not an HTTP POST Message XML_WSI1004Message not sent using the HTTP POST method. WSI1004: Request Message Should be an HTTP POST Message is set to Yes on the WEBSITES > XML Protection > Ski Basic Profile Assertions section. AlertXML Violations209Response Wrapper Does Not Match the Name Attribute on WSDL:Operation XML_WSI1005Wrapper element in the response message does not match the name attribute on the WSDL:operation element concatenated by the string “Response”.

WSI1203: Namespace on the Detail Element in the SOAP:Fault Should be a Foreign Namespace is set to Yes on the WEBSITES > Protection > Ski Basic Profile Assertions section. AlertXML Violations238SOAP:Fault Message Not Found in the HTTP 500 Response XML_WSI1305The SOAP fault response message does not have “500 Internal Server Error” HTTP status code. WSI1302: SOAP:Fault code Should be Standard or Namespace Qualified is set to Yes on the WEBSITES > XML Protection > Ski Basic Profile Assertions section. AlertXML Violations229SOAPAction Header Does Not Contain the Correct String Value XML_WSI1116SOAP message whose Compaction HTTP header field does not match the WSDL compaction attribute in soap bind:operation (either the same value or a blank quoted string if not present).

cyber crime market fbi ransomware hacker selling hacked report access threats malaysia money countries damaging attacks hacking security server according
(Source: www.cpomagazine.com)

WSI1006: Compaction Header Should Contain Quoted String is set to Yes on the WEBSITES > Protection > Ski Basic Profile Assertions section. AlertXML Violations233SOAP: Body Contains the “Soaping:Archetype” Attribute XML_WSI1204Message contains a fault code element which is neither a fault code defined in SOAP 1.1 nor a namespace qualified fault code. This simple PHP code essentially allows the attacker to send a POST request to this URL and pass base64_encoded commands in a parameter called “data” and have it execute server-side.

This is an easy foothold into the web application that the attacker can then expand upon to upload more robust tools for even more flexibility and control.

Other Articles You Might Be Interested In

01: Datapower User Agent
02: Html Css User Agent Stylesheet
03: Httpclient User Agent Set
04: Http Request Header User Agent
05: Http User Agent Format
06: Parse User Agent Javascript
07: Parsing User Agent String
08: Datapower User Agent
Sources
1 www.ibm.com - https://www.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/en/SS9H2Y_7.7.0/com.ibm.dp.doc/useragent.html
2 www.ibm.com - https://www.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/en/SSMKFH/com.ibm.apmaas.doc/install/datapower_config_agent.htm
3 developer.ibm.com - https://developer.ibm.com/recipes/tutorials/ibm-datapower-get-statistics-multiprotocol-gateway-mpgw/
4 community.ibm.com - https://community.ibm.com/community/user/imwuc/communities/community-home/digestviewer
5 community.ibm.com - https://community.ibm.com/community/user/middleware/communities/community-home/digestviewer
6 svrtechnologies.com - https://svrtechnologies.com/top-50-ibm-datapower-interview-questions-and-answers-pdf/
7 developer.ibm.com - https://developer.ibm.com/recipes/tutorials/create-datapower-rest-and-soap-services-automatically-through-a-single-page/
8 ibmdatapowerprofessionals.blogspot.com - https://ibmdatapowerprofessionals.blogspot.com/2016/04/
9 blogs.perficient.com - https://blogs.perficient.com/2016/05/11/implementing-slm-unicast-peer-group-in-datapower/