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What Does Your User Agent Say About You?

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A user agent is a computer program representing a person, for example, a browser in a Web context.

Besides a browser, a user agent could be a bot scraping webpages, a download manager, or another app accessing the Web. Along with each request they make to the server, browsers include a self-identifying User-Agent HTTP header called a user agent (UA) string. This string often identifies the browser, its version number, and its host operating system.

Spam bots, download managers, and some browsers often send a fake UA string to announce themselves as a different client. This is known as user agent spoofing.

The user agent string can be accessed with JavaScript on the client side using the navigator.userAgent property.

A typical user agent string looks like this: "Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Ubuntu; Linux x86_64; rv:35.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/35.0".

(Source: Mozilla.org)

User Agent String

Browser Data

User Identification Agent Palo Alto

author
Christina Perez
• Monday, 14 December, 2020
• 9 min read

Enable the User -ID agent to use Windows Management Instrumentation (Wei) to probe client systems or Windows Remote Management (Win RM) over HTTP or HTTPS to monitor servers for user mapping information. Ensure that the firewall has the most current user mapping information as users roam and obtain new IP addresses.

user identification palo alto tab under mapping edit
(Source: www.atomcreek.com)

Contents

Configure the User -ID agent to omit specific usernames from the mapping process. This account needs the user right to read the security logs on the domain controllers.

For more accurate IP to user mapping support, disable net bios probing. Click OK. You can monitor the agent status window in the top left corner, which should display no errors.

Configure Name, Host (IP address) and Port of the User -ID Agent. In the bottom left corner of the Zone properties page, check the box to Enable user identification.

To confirm connectivity, run this command via CLI of APN firewall: show pan- agent statistics which should return state connected, ok. To view currently logged-in users, run: debug data plane show user all. The following procedure shows how to install the User -ID agent on a member server in the domain and set up the service account with the required permissions.

Create a dedicated Active Directory service account for the User -ID agent to access the services and hosts it will monitor to collect user mappings. Add the service account username or built-in group (Administrators have this privilege by default).

user collector mapping userid verify configure enabled configured server directory active been os pan
(Source: live.paloaltonetworks.com)

The permission to log on as a service is only needed locally on the Windows server that is the agent host. If you want to use server monitoring to identify users, add the service account to the Event Log Reader built-in group to enable privileges for reading the security log events.

On the domain controller or Exchange server that contains the logs you want the User -ID agent to read, or on the member server that receives events from Windows log forwarding, run the MMC and launch the Active Directory Users and Computers snap-in. Navigate to the Builtin folder for the domain, right-click the group and select to open the properties' dialog.

Confirm that the built-in Event Log Reader group lists the service account as a member. Assign account permissions to the installation folder to allow the service account to access the agent ’s installation folder to read the configuration and write logs.

Assign the User -ID service account and then click to save the setting. The User -ID agent queries the Domain Controller and Exchange server logs using Microsoft Remote Procedure Calls (MSR PCs).

During the initial connection, the agent transfers the most recent 50,000 events from the log to map users. On each subsequent connection, the agent transfers events with a timestamp later than the last communication with the domain controller.

user pa alto palo networks firewall app
(Source: www.paloguard.com)

Therefore, always install one or more User -ID agents at each site that has servers to be monitored. You must install the User -ID agent on a system running one of the supported OS versions: see “Operating System (OS) Compatibility User -ID Agent in the Compatibility Matrix.

The system must also meet the minimum requirements (see the User -ID agent release notes). Make sure the system that will host the User -ID agent is a member of the same domain as the servers it will monitor.

You might need to install multiple User -ID agents to efficiently monitor all of your resources. If you are using the User -ID agent for credential detection, you must install it on the read-only domain controller (Rod).

And select the version of the User -ID agent you want to install from the corresponding Download column. Follow the setup prompts to install the agent using the default settings.

By default, the agent gets installed to C:\Program Files(x86)\ Palo Alto Networks () Change the service account that the User -ID agent uses to log in.

user agent service starting configured verify settings screenshot same above services account paloaltonetworks
(Source: knowledgebase.paloaltonetworks.com)

By default, the agent uses the administrator account used to install the .MSI file. () Assign your own certificates for mutual authentication between the Windows User -ID agent and the firewall.

Obtain your certificate for the Windows User -ID agent using one of the following methods. Upload a certificate to the firewall to validate the Windows User -ID agent ’s identity.

Configure the certificate profile for the client device (firewall or Panorama). User -ID on Palo Alto Firewall is a feature which helps to integrate an active directory with Palo Alto to map username with user activity instead of only IP address.

In this lesson, we will learn to enable User -ID on Palo Alto Firewall. From user identification pages, you need to modify Palo Alto Networks User -ID Agent Setup by clicking gear button on top-right comer.

In Server Monitor Account section, add your username with the domain and its password. In my LAB, I name it as Our-LDAP-Server and add the IP address of AD server, which is 192.168.1.100.

agent palo alto networks configuration firewall
(Source: chasechristian.com)

Here, go to Device >> UserIdentification >> Group Mapping Settings. You have to name the Group Mapping and add Server Profile.

In my case, the name of the Group Mapping is Our-LDAP-GROUP-MAPPING, and I select my Server Profile Our-LDAP from drop-down menu. Check the box on Enable UserIdentification just like below picture.

You will find verification details for User -ID on Palo Alto from here. The Palo Alto User ID service provides a mapping between users and the IP addresses they use.

The User ID agent is using the Windows login event logs to identify the current IP used by a user. The specific Security event records the user id and the IP address where the login comes from.

The User ID agent is also capable of retrieving this type of information from other authentication services but in our case we will only use the AD logins. In order to compile the required information, the User ID agent needs the right to query the AD users and their AD group membership, as well as the ability to read the Windows Security event logs for events related to logins.

expert identification userid agent
(Source: www.slideshare.net)

The logon as a service can also be granted just to the local computer by going to Local Policies User Rights Assignments Log on as a service Add the new account to the Event Log Reader built-in group (since the account needs to access the Security event logs) Assign the account R/W permissions to the folder where the agent is installed. 2. Right-click the Windows icon, Search for Active Directory Users and Computers, and launch the application.

Enter the object names to select as follows to assign the account to groups. These privileges are required if the User -ID agent will collect mapping information by monitoring Security logs.

The PA User -Id Agent requires a dedicated AD service account: UserIdentification is a unique feature of Palo Alto firewall with a range of enterprise directory and terminal services to map application activity and policies to usernames and groups instead of just IP addresses.

The user identity, as opposed to an IP address, is an entire factor of an effective security key infrastructure. User -id mapping with IP address keeps track of who is using applications in your network, and who transmitted a threat or who is transferring files.

This approach can strengthen security policies and reduce incident response times. Mapping can be done with known IP address to known username so that security rules can be enforced appropriately.

service user agent account starting additionally verify settings sure services
(Source: knowledgebase.paloaltonetworks.com)

Server Monitoring Syslog Off Headers Authentication Policy and Captive Portal Global Protect XML API Client Probing To map usernames to IP addresses, User -ID agents monitor directory servers.

In order for Security policies profile reports to be based on users and user groups, the firewall fetches the list of groups and the corresponding list of members identified and maintained in the directory servers. In some models, firewall does not support the directory server natively, and this can be mapped in group by XML API.

It gathers information about user who is using the applications in the customer network, and who may have transmitted a threat or is transferring files, thereby strengthening security policies of organization and reducing incident response times. Rating is available when the video has been rented.

Published on Sep 19, 2018 Using this information, you can make rules that filter traffic based on particular users (or groups), allowing you to fine-tune your policies.

You’ll want to edit the settings to fill in your Active Directory administrator account. Next, visit the Discovery tab to select the domain controllers you want to poll.

alto palo user networks
(Source: www.youtube.com)

Now you can use Active Directory usernames in your policies, or you can set up an LDAP server profile to do group-based mapping.

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Sources
1 www.nomensa.com - https://www.nomensa.com/blog/2011/how-do-you-detect-screen-reader
2 www.powermapper.com - https://www.powermapper.com/tests/screen-readers/ua/ua-jaws-cr/
3 www.powermapper.com - https://www.powermapper.com/tests/screen-readers/ua/ua-jaws-ff/
4 www.w3.org - https://www.w3.org/WAI/standards-guidelines/uaag/
5 cracks4software.com - https://cracks4software.com/cracked/agent-screen-reader-33049
6 www.webaxe.org - https://www.webaxe.org/detecting-screen-readers-no/
7 developer.mozilla.org - https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/HTTP/Headers/User-Agent
8 webaim.org - https://webaim.org/projects/screenreadersurvey7/
9 www.levelaccess.com - https://www.levelaccess.com/how-browsers-interact-with-screen-readers-and-where-aria-fits-in-the-mix/